What are Performance Metrics and Why do you need Performance Metrics Consultants?
Performance metrics are a type of data that is used to amplify part of the business. They help organizations know what’s going on with their current processes and improve on them as needed. These metrics vary depending on the company and how they measure success, but they typically focus on two types of data: how many customers there are, as well as how loyal those customers are to the brand.
Ever since the financial crisis in 2008, investors are keenly interested in performance metrics. How are companies doing? Which sectors or countries are potential growth markets? Of course, there is no one answer that fits all situations. Investors need to look at several different sources for this information, and often combine various metrics to get a broader view of how an investment will perform over time. Fintalent, the hiring and collaboration platform for Strategy and M&A professionals has some of the best Performance Metrics Consultants. Fintalent’s freelance performance measurement experts possess requisite knowledge drawn from varied experience in Performance Measurement and are able to determine and measure the most suitable Performance Metrics.
This article lists some of the most important performance metrics in finance as identified by Fintalent’s Performance Metrics Experts.
- Fama-French 3-Finance Factors. These are the factors of three famous finance professors who found out that stock returns can be classified into three groups, value, size and momentum factors. These are very important metrics to know for investors who invest based on factor models. With hundreds of mutual funds based on these factors, even passive investors can benefit from this knowledge. For example, the iShares Edge MSCI USA Quality Factor ETF (NASDAQ:QUAL) is an exchange-traded fund that invests in companies with high profitability and returns on equity. This fund tracks the performance of the Fama-French quality index for US listed equities.
- Stanley, Highwater and Ishares Stanley/Ishares Price Momentum factor strategy (POMS). This is one of the most popular investment themes. This article provides a detailed description on how to use this indicator with many examples. This article also shows their latest factor model, which incorporates equity market cycle length effect, which you can use to generate your own POMS based factor model. Click here for their POMS model PDF.
- Risk and Return Metrics, Sharpe Ratio and Sortino Ratio. These are the most frequently used metrics to measure investment manager performance. All of these metrics compare risk-adjusted returns of two portfolios. The one that generates higher return with lower risk will receive higher ranking. As the name suggests, the Sharpe ratio measures risk adjusted returns for a portfolio or fund through use of its standard deviation and average returns over a specified period of time (usually 1 year). The Sortino ratio is essentially the same as the Sharpe ratio, but it uses average excess returns and standard deviation instead. The Sharpe ratio and sortino ratios takes every single investment into consideration when calculating its return, while the Alpha takes only good investments into account.
- Sharpe Ratio: This is the most commonly used metric for measuring investment manager performance. It measures risk-adjusted return by calculating the average excess of return over the standard deviation. The measure helps investors assess how profitable a particular manager has been at selecting stocks. Many investors consider this a good measure of how good a manager is. The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel Prize laureate William Sharpe in 1980.
- Sortino Ratio: This is also a very common metric for measuring investment manager performance. It calculates the expected return that an investor would have earned with a given level of risk, assuming they invested in the portfolio or fund using some method that ranked it highly (e.g., buy and hold). The ratio is calculated by taking the logarithm of returns and dividing them by original (unadjusted) returns.
- Alpha: Alpha compares the actual return of one investment strategy to its benchmark (a traditional market index such as S&P 500 or Russell 1000). The measure is calculated by taking the excess of the return generated by the investment strategy over the expected return of a benchmark. As described in this article, alpha is not a performance metric. Rather than measuring an investment manager’s performance, alpha measures his or her skill at selecting investments and strategies that beat a benchmark.
- Z-Score and Z-Score Optimized Portfolio (ZOP). The most important technical indicator used in technical analysis is called Z-score. It measures volatility in stock returns to show whether an index has overbought or oversold conditions. However, it does not reflect whether investors are making money on their investments.ignore the management fees in their calculations of returns, but these are usually included in his calculations, which makes Sharpe ratio more reliable for short-term results rather than long-term ones. For example, when markets are volatile or in long downtrends, Sharpe ratio sometimes still lists managers who have done well with excess returns in very volatile moves compared with their peers in charge of less volatile areas in which they sit.
- Z-Score: A Z-score is a calculation of volatility. It quantifies how far an index has strayed from the distribution of benchmarked stock returns. The distribution of benchmarked stock returns for each index is normally based on historical returns and volatility to help investors compare different indexes. One drawback to using the Z-score is that it does not reflect whether investors are making money on their investments, as it ignores stock prices and fees paid, which can make Sharpe ratio more reliable for short-term results rather than long-term ones.
- ZOP: The ZOP methodology adds the concept of optimization to an existing method for calculating Z scores. The optimization approach maximizes the probability of identifying undervalued securities. An investor can use the ZOP method to identify stocks with low Z-scores, but which are most likely to turn favorable in the near future.
- Mutual Fund Expense Ratios and Operating Costs Factor (OPC). A mutual fund expense ratio is a fee charged against a fund’s assets. This fee is charged to cover the cost of running the fund and is normally stated as an annual percentage of assets annually. There may be deferred sales charges or transaction fees for buying and selling shares if investors sell their shares within a certain period of time after purchasing them. The operating expenses ratio is the smallest expense ratio of all equity styles. It offers investors very low costs, but generally little portfolio tracking error compared to other styles.
- Mutual fund expense ratios are typically disclosed in a prospectus. They are also reported on fund fact sheets and on some websites, such as Morningstar.com, which is considered by many to be the premier source of research on mutual funds. By law, mutual fund companies must provide their share prices within 15 percent of the closing prices of the stocks they hold in their portfolios every day investors are able to get these costs through several sources, not just from online sources or mutual fund companies
- Volatility. Volatility is a measure of the price range that a stock has in a year.
Stock volatility is an important measure because it can be used to determine whether an investment in a company’s stock is risky. When the volatility of a stock increases, so does its risk. Stock prices move up and down every day and the degree to which they differ from one another over time determines volatility. The greater the price fluctuations, the higher the risk for investors in that equity.
Stock volatility can be calculated using one of two formulas: standard deviation or variance (S&P 500, Nasdaq 100 and Russell 2000), or beta (almost all others). Using standard deviation, the calculation of volatility is simple:
Stock volatility = Standard deviation divided by Volatility ratio.
In other words, a stock will have a higher volatility value if its standard deviation is larger than its volatility ratio. Volatility is a good measure of risk but it’s not all-encompassing. For example, Wal-Mart has a yearly volatility of about 1.1 percent for the past ten years. The company’s stock price has been particularly stable during this time. In 2009, Wal-Mart traded as low as $41 per share and as high as $48 per share. It closed the year at $47 per share, so its volatility is relatively low.
Beta is a measure of how closely the performance of an individual stock or market sector tracks or follows changes in the overall market. A beta number greater than 1 indicates that an investment moves with the broader stock market; a beta less than 1 indicates that an investment moves in the opposite direction of the broader market; and a beta equal to 1 indicates that stocks move exactly in line with whatever they are compared to.
Beta is most commonly used to measure volatility of an index against another index (e.g., S&P 500 vs. Russell 2000).
- Market Capitalization
Market capitalization is the total value of stock in circulation in a market, calculated by multiplying the price of the stock by the number of shares outstanding. Market capitalization may not be appropriate for some companies. If a company’s market capitalization is based on its share price, then its growth prospects are more important than its current position on the stock market. A valuation based on market capitalization is also imprecise because of new issues where there are no traded shares outstanding. The correct method for valuing new offerings is based on their fair value per share after their issue date, which is also known as adjusted net asset value (also known as “the adjusted book”).
- Free Cash Flow
cash flow (FCF) is a term uby private equity and other investors in the real estate sector to describe the cash flows from operating activities of a portfolio company. It is also sometimes used as a financial model for asset managers and real estate funds. Amazon, one of the largest online retailers, uses free cash flow as one of its indicators to gauge market demand for Amazon’s shares since it only sells Amazon shares to meet its financing needs.
- Current Ratio
The current ratio is an important liquidity test for companies because it measures how much capital is being employed in order to maintain the current level of business activity. It is one of the most frequently used ratios in financial analysis, and it’s a great buffer to have in a time of trouble. It indicates how many days a company could stay operational if its creditors stopped making payments, giving it time to try to remedy its problems.
The current ratio is used as a way for investors to determine whether or not a company has enough short-term assets on hand to cover its short-term liabilities. A ratio greater than 1 indicates that there are more current assets available than current liabilities. The current ratio provides an indication as to whether the firm has sufficient liquid resources for quick cash needs or whether it may have difficulties in paying off its obligations as they come due.
- Market Capitalization to GDP
Market capitalization to GDP is often used by economists, financial analysts and politicians in order to measure the strength of a country’s economy. It tells them something about the economic health of a country, but it can also reveal information about whether or not economic growth is sustainable over the long-term.
The formula for calculating market capitalization to GDP is: Market Cap = Total Assets / Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The ratio tells investors how much of a country’s total wealth an individual holding represents in comparison to how much it produces. The higher the ratio, the greater the country’s economic power. This ratio should not be used to compare countries’ relative wealth. It can be misleading if two countries have similar GDPs but wildly different market caps because high market cap stocks are generally more valuable than companies with lower market caps that are equally productive.
The current GDP of the United States is approximately $15 trillion. There are roughly five billion shares of common stock outstanding in U.S. corporations, representing roughly $38 trillion in market capitalization. If each share represented a direct claim on company assets, then each share would be worth about $38,000 or roughly 18 percent of U.S. GDP. In practice, of course, this is not true.
- Gross Profit Margin
This indicator is a key one for retail companies or companies in highly competitive industries where price is a large driver of sales volume. It measures the difference between the revenue earned from a sale and the cost to make it. The gross profit margin can be expressed as a percentage, a ratio, a base amount or a dollar amount. It looks at only two variables: Revenue and Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) and tells investors how much money was left over after all of an organization’s expenses were covered during the last period.
Why You Should Hire Fintalent’s Performance Metric Consultants
Performance metrics are necessary for measuring the actions of an organization. They provide insight into how well or poorly a company is doing and whether or not corrective action needs to be taken as a result. The information generated by these measurements can be used to take corrective action, which is important because it is what allows an organization to improve its performance. Fintalent’s performance metric consultants possess vast experience in both the corporate world across diverse industries and are able to bring in their expertise into your organization.